• WordNet Browser. Source:
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  • Lexical Relations. Source:
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  • WordNet System. Source:
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  • WordNet Structure. Source:
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WordNet

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Summary

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WordNet Browser. Source:

WordNet can be seen as a combination of dictionary and thesaurus. A common use of WordNet is to determine the similarity between words. It is a network of words linked by lexical and semantic relations. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms (synsets), each expressing a distinct concept.

Synsets are interlinked by means of conceptual-semantic and lexical relations. The resulting network of meaningfully related words and concepts can be navigated with the browser.

WordNet is a lexical database for the English language based on conceptual look-up.

WordNet is also freely and publicly available for download.

Milestones

1928

Murray’s Oxford English Dictionary was compiled ‘‘on historical principles’’. By focusing on historical evidence, however the OED(Oxford English Dictionary) like other standard dictionaries, neglected questions concerning the synchronic organization of lexical knowledge.

1976

Both linguists and psycholinguists have explored in considerable depth the factors determining the contemporary (synchronic) structure of linguistic knowledge in general, and lexical knowledge in particular—Miller and Johnson-Laird have proposed that research concerned with the lexical component of language should be called psycholexicology.

1985

A group of psychologists and linguists at Princeton University undertook to develop a lexical database along lines suggested by these investigations (Miller).The initial idea was to provide an aid to use in searching dictionaries conceptually, rather than merely alphabetically. WordNet can be said to be a dictionary based on psycholinguistic principles.

Jun
1991

WordNet version 1.0 was released in June 1991. Randee Tengi has supervised a series of releases until v1.5 in March 1995

1998

The Euro WordNet was built over 3 years – linked structure of European language WordNet.

Mar
2005

The most recent Windows version of WordNet is 2.1, released in March 2005, with two versions available of the conversion: Basic and Full.

Dec
2006

Version 3.0 for Unix/Linux/Solaris/etc. was released in December 2006. Version 3.1 is currently available only online. Some changes were made to the graphical interface and WordNet library with regard to adjective and adverb searches. The adjective search "Synonyms/Related Nouns" was relabeled "Synonyms" and similarly, the adverb search "Synonyms/Stem Adjectives" was relabled "Synonyms". A separate "Related Noun" search was inserted for adjectives, and a separate "Base Adjective" search was added for adverbs.

Discussion

  • What is the distinction between WordNet and Thesaurus?
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    Lexical Relations. Source:

    WordNet interlinks not just word forms—strings of letters—but specific senses of words. As a result, words that are found in close proximity to one another in the network are semantically disambiguated.

    WordNet labels the semantic relations among words, whereas the groupings of words in a thesaurus does not follow any explicit pattern other than meaning similarity.

    WordNet’s design resembles that of a thesaurus in that its building block is a synsets consisting of all the words that express a given concept.Thus the user of WordNet who has a given concept in mind can find, by calling up one of the words expressing this concept, other words that lexicalize the same concept.

    WordNet does much more than the list concepts in the form of synsets. The synsets are linked by means of a number of relation, including hyponymy, meronymy and entailment.

    Unlike in a thesaurus, the relations between concepts and words in WordNet are made explicit and labelled.

  • What is WordNet used for?

    WordNet's structure makes it a useful tool for computational linguistics and natural language processing.

    • As a lexical resource, an online dictionary.
    • Word sense disambiguation.
    • Information retrieval.
    • Automatic text/document clasification.
    • Machine translation.
    • Automatic crossword puzzle generation.
    • Improve search engine results.
    • Document retrieval.
  • Name a sample application using WordNet.
    Wordnet with NLTK. Source: NLTK 2015.

    WordNet primary use is in automatic text analysis and artificial intelligence applications.

    WordNet is part of the NLTK corpus. The Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) is an open source Python library for Natural Language Processing. You can use WordNet alongside the NLTK module to find the meanings of words, synonyms, antonyms, and more.

  • What are the contents of WordNet?
    image
    WordNet System. Source:

    WordNet's latest online-version 3.1 database contains 1,55,327 words organized in 1,75,979 synsets for a total of 2,07,016 word-sense pairs; in compressed form, it is about 12 megabytes in size.

    Wordnet Distinguish between nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs- 4 major syntactic categories.

    WordNet contains basic units:

    • Compounds
    • Phrasal verbs
    • Collocations
    • Idiomatic phrases

    WordNet as a dictionary:

    • Give definitions
    • Sample sentences
    • Contains synonym sets

    WordNet as thesaurus:

    • Conceptual level: semantic conceptual relations
    • Lexical level: lexical relation
  • Who uses WordNet?
    • Linguistics Scientist
    • Psychologist
    • Artificial Intelligence Scientist
    • Natural Language Processing Scientist
  • What are major Lexical Relations?
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    WordNet Structure. Source:
    • Synonymy - Synonyms are words that have similar meanings. Different ways of expressing related concepts. Used in different contexts, have different implications. A synonym set, or synset is a group of synonyms. e.g: cat, feline, siamese cat.
    • Polysemy - Most words have more than one sense,

    \(Homonym\) same sound and spelling with different meaning. E.g: bank (river), bank (financial).

    \(Polysemy\) different senses of same word.

    • Metonymy - Use one aspect of something to stand for the whole. Mostly all collective nouns come under this.
    • Hyponymy/Hypernymy - ISA relation. Related to super ordinate and subordinate level categories. \(Hypernyms\) are the synsets that are more general, \(Hyponyms\) are the synsets that are more specific. e.g: hyponym(emu, brid), hyponym(bird, animal), hypernym(animal, bird).
    • Meronymy/Holonymy - Part/Whole relation. Holonyms are the inverse of meronyms. \(Holonyms\) are things that the item is contained in. \(Meronyms\) are components or substances that make up the item. e.g: meronym(bark, tree), holonym(tree, bark).
    • Antonymy - Lexical opposites. e.g: antonym(large, small).
  • What are the limitations?

    WordNet does not include information about the \(etymology\)(is the study of history of words, their origin and how their form and meaning have changed over time) or the pronunciation of words and it contains only limited information about usage. WordNet aims to cover most of everyday English and does not include much domain-specific terminology.

    \(Licensed WordNets\) - Global WordNet community had been slowly re-licensing their WordNets to an open domain where researchers and developers can easily access and use WordNets as language resources to provide ontological and lexical knowledge in Natural Language Processing tasks.

Sample Code

  • from nltk.corpus import wordnet
    synonyms = []
    antonyms = []
     
    for syn in wordnet.synsets("good"):
        for l in syn.lemmas():
            synonyms.append(l.name())
            if l.antonyms():
                antonyms.append(l.antonyms()[0].name())
     
    print(set(synonyms))
    print(set(antonyms))

References

  1. Ahmed, Abd-Elwasaa. 2016. "WORDNET: A Database of Lexical Relations."
  2. Fellbaum, Christiane. 1998. "WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database."
  3. Govind, Raj. 2013. "WordNet."
  4. Khoi, Nguyen. 2012. "WordNet Introduction."
  5. Loria, Steven. 2013. "WordNet Tutorial."
  6. Miller, George A. 1993. "Introduction to WordNet"
  7. NLTK. 2015. "WordNet Natural Language Processing With Python." Published on May 2015
  8. Princeton University. 2007. "Current Version." WordNet. Download.
  9. Princeton University. 2010. "About WordNet." WordNet. Princeton University.
  10. PythonProgramming. 2015. "Wordnet with NLTK."
  11. Wikipedia. 2001. "WordNet." Last Edited 22 June, 2018

Milestones

1928

Murray’s Oxford English Dictionary was compiled ‘‘on historical principles’’. By focusing on historical evidence, however the OED(Oxford English Dictionary) like other standard dictionaries, neglected questions concerning the synchronic organization of lexical knowledge.

1976

Both linguists and psycholinguists have explored in considerable depth the factors determining the contemporary (synchronic) structure of linguistic knowledge in general, and lexical knowledge in particular—Miller and Johnson-Laird have proposed that research concerned with the lexical component of language should be called psycholexicology.

1985

A group of psychologists and linguists at Princeton University undertook to develop a lexical database along lines suggested by these investigations (Miller).The initial idea was to provide an aid to use in searching dictionaries conceptually, rather than merely alphabetically. WordNet can be said to be a dictionary based on psycholinguistic principles.

Jun
1991

WordNet version 1.0 was released in June 1991. Randee Tengi has supervised a series of releases until v1.5 in March 1995

1998

The Euro WordNet was built over 3 years – linked structure of European language WordNet.

Mar
2005

The most recent Windows version of WordNet is 2.1, released in March 2005, with two versions available of the conversion: Basic and Full.

Dec
2006

Version 3.0 for Unix/Linux/Solaris/etc. was released in December 2006. Version 3.1 is currently available only online. Some changes were made to the graphical interface and WordNet library with regard to adjective and adverb searches. The adjective search "Synonyms/Related Nouns" was relabeled "Synonyms" and similarly, the adverb search "Synonyms/Stem Adjectives" was relabled "Synonyms". A separate "Related Noun" search was inserted for adjectives, and a separate "Base Adjective" search was added for adverbs.

Tags

See Also

Further Reading

  1. An Electronic Lexical Database
  2. WordNet RDF/OWL Files
  3. Conceptual Introduction Using Python
  4. WordNet-3.0
  5. WordNet Tutorial
  6. F#-Querying WordNet Online

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Last update: 2018-07-28 07:54:56 by arvindpdmn
Creation: 2018-07-24 11:48:52 by narendra

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Cite As

Devopedia. 2018. "WordNet." Version 14, July 28. Accessed 2018-12-15. https://devopedia.org/wordnet
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