IEEE 802.11be

Summary of features and benefits of Wi-Fi 7. Source: Wi-Fi Alliance 2024.
Summary of features and benefits of Wi-Fi 7. Source: Wi-Fi Alliance 2024.

The IEEE 802.11be standard focuses on high throughput, deterministic latency and reliability. It's also called Wi-Fi 7 or Extremely High Throughput (EHT).

Wi-Fi 7 can be seen as an evolution of Wi-Fi 6E. It's backward compatible with Wi-Fi 6E, uses OFDMA and operates in the same bands (2.4/5/6GHz). It improves upon Wi-Fi 6E in terms of channel bandwidth (320MHz vs 160MHz), modulation (4096-QAM vs 1024-QAM), and MU-MIMO (16x16 vs 8x8). In addition, it introduces Multi-Link Operation (MLO) and multiple resource units (MRUs) as new features.

Certified Wi-Fi 7 products started appearing in the market in 2024. This is motivated by more spectrum in the 6GHz band plus FCC's permission to operate with standard power. Adoption of Wi-Fi 7 is set to grow till 2030 and beyond.

Discussion

  • What new use cases does IEEE 802.11be enable?

    IEEE 802.11be's better throughput, latency and stability relate directly to use cases that demand these improvements: streaming applications, multi-user extended reality (XR), immersive 3D training, cloud gaming, smart cities, large scale IoT, industrial IoT, automotive, telemedicine, whole-home video distribution, and more.

    IEEE 802.11be can achieve a latency of 2ms. Peak data rate is 46Gbps. For comparison, we note that uncompressed 60fps 4K video is 12Gbps.

    In general, Wi-Fi enables multi-gigabit speeds. It anticipates 10 Gigabit broadband connections that are not far away. For mesh networking, legacy systems typically dedicate a 5 or 6GHz channel for the backhaul links that interconnect mesh nodes. Wi-Fi 7 allows flexible and dynamic allocation of channels across fronthaul and backhaul.

    Wi-Fi 7 is able to support higher device density, which is beneficial towards IoT deployments. Operators can deploy and manage fewer APs. An AP can support a variety of use cases: high-throughput low-latency clients at 5 or 6GHz, and many low-throughput delay-tolerant legacy or IoT clients at 2.4GHz.

  • How does IEEE 802.11be change the PHY layer?
    Preamble puncturing in Wi-Fi 7. Source: Qualcomm 2024a, p. 5.
    Preamble puncturing in Wi-Fi 7. Source: Qualcomm 2024a, p. 5.

    Channel bandwidth in Wi-Fi 6/6E is 160MHz at the maximum. Wi-Fi 7 extends this to 320MHz in the 6GHz band. Modulation in Wi-Fi 6 was 1024-QAM (10 bits/symbol/Hz). Wi-Fi 7 increases this to 4096-QAM (12 bits/symbol/Hz). Number of spatially multiplexed streams due to MIMO is increased from 8x8 to 16x16.

    Only LOS links with beamforming achieving 30dB can benefit from 4096-QAM. Spatial multiplexing is sacrificed for spatial diversity, that is, more spatial streams are used towards a client to realize 4096-QAM. In any case, 4096-QAM frees up capacity for other devices with poorer links. Overall network efficiency improves.

    Wi-Fi 7 enhances the preamble while maintaining backward compatibility. It adds the fields EHT-SIG, EHT-STF and EHT-LTF. There's also the U-SIG field that includes the PHY Version Identifier, making the frame format forward compatible.

    Wi-Fi 7 permits multiple RUs, which facilitates more flexible scheduling. Via preamble puncturing, interfering sub-carriers can be ignored. For example, we could ignore a 20MHz interferer and use the remaining 300MHz. In Wi-Fi 6, we could've got at best 160MHz in this scenario, thus underutilizing available capacity.

  • What combinations of RUs does IEEE 802.11be allow?
    Multiple RU combinations that can be assigned to a client. Source: Arista 2023, fig. 4.
    Multiple RU combinations that can be assigned to a client. Source: Arista 2023, fig. 4.

    Wi-Fi 6 introduced OFDMA and the concept of Resource Unit (RU). An RU is a group of continguous sub-carriers.

    RUs are of two types: small (106-tone and below) and large (242-tone and above). While it's possible to have dozens of combinations, this would create a signalling overhead. Hence the standard defines only a few valid combinations. Small-sized RUs can be combined with only small-sized RUs, and likewise for large-sized RUs.

    A 996-tone RU corresponds to the entire 80MHz bandwidth. This consists of 980 data and 16 pilot tones. At most, three RUs can be combined towards one client. The maximum assignment is in the 6GHz band: 2x996 + 996 + 484.

  • How does IEEE 802.11be change the MAC layer?
    MLD architecture. Source: Arista 2023, fig. 8.
    MLD architecture. Source: Arista 2023, fig. 8.

    The most significant addition to MAC layer in Wi-Fi 7 is Multi-Link Operation (MLO). A client can have multiple links with an AP across 2.4/5/6GHz bands. A client or AP supporting MLO is called Multi-Link Device (MLD). MAC layer itself is split into Upper MAC (U-MAC) and Lower MAC (L-MAC) sublayers.

    Wi-Fi 6 introduced Triggered Uplink Access (TUA). AP sends a trigger frame with RU allocations for multiple clients. Wi-Fi 7 improves this mechanism to better fulfil QoS and latency requirements.

    Two features that optimize for latency are Stream Classification Service (SCS) and Restricted Target Wake Time (R-TWT). In SCS, QoS Characteristics element is added. In R-TWT, devices will end their transmissions before the TWT service period begins.

    Block Ack (BA) is a feature that allows a receiver to acknowledge multiple MAC PDUs with a single bitmap. In Wi-Fi 6, the limit on the bitmap was 256 MPDUs. Wi-Fi 7 increases this to 512 MPDUs. This is an efficiency improvement at the MAC layer. The number of MPDUs that can be aggregated into a A-MPDU is increased to 1024.

  • Which are the different MLO modes?
    Illustrating two MLO modes: EMLSR and MLMR. Source: Intel 2024.
    Illustrating two MLO modes: EMLSR and MLMR. Source: Intel 2024.

    MLO can be asynchronous in which each link is selected separately. By transmitting on one link and receiving on another, full duplex communication is possible but at the expense of complexity due to out-of-band emissions and interference cancellation techniques. Synchronous MLO coordinates transmissions across all links and avoids interference issues. Backoff happens only on the primary link.

    Not all MLD devices have the same capability. The following types have been identified:

    • Multi-Link Single Radio (MLSR): 1 radio. Tx/Rx on only one link at a time.
    • Enhanced Multi-Link Single Radio (EMLSR): Like MLSR but can listen on two links simultaneously with 1x1. Tx/Rx on one link with 2x2.
    • Multi-Link Multi-Radio (MLMR): 2+ radios. Can Tx/Rx on multiple links. This has two variants: Non-Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (NSTR) in which full duplex isn't possible; and Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (STR) in which full duplex is possible.
    • Enhanced Multi-Link Multi-Radio (EMLMR): MLMR but can also dynamically reconfigure spatial multiplexing on each link.
  • What bands and bandwidths are available for IEEE 802.11be?
    Wi-Fi 7 permits 3 x 320MHz channels in the 6GHz band. Source: Ganesh T S 2024.
    Wi-Fi 7 permits 3 x 320MHz channels in the 6GHz band. Source: Ganesh T S 2024.

    IEEE 802.11be uses all three bands: 2.4GHz, 5GHz and 6GHz. In 6GHz, there are 60 20MHz channels, adding up to 1200MHz of spectrum. Channel bandwidth 320MHz is possible only in the 6GHz band. Bandwidths 80 and 160MHz are possible only in the 5 and 6GHz bands. Only bandwidths 20 and 40MHz are possible in the 2.4GHz band.

    It's common to see the term "quad-band" in product specifications. The term "quad-link" is perhaps more appropriate but this is not used in the industry. This refers to MLO where multiple links are configured within the same band. For example, (2 x 320MHz @ 6GHz) + (1 x 240MHz @ 5GHz) + (1 x 40MHz @ 2.4GHz) is termed as quad-band.

  • How can I calculate the theoretical peak data rate in Wi-Fi 7?

    Wi-Fi 7 standardization started with the goal of achieving at least 30Gbps. In fact, the standard is now able to provide 46Gbps. In comparison, Wi-Fi 6 achieves only 9.6Gbps.

    Symbol transmission time is 12.8μs. Guard interval is 0.8μs. Thus, we can transmit 1/(12.8μs + 0.8μs) = 73,529 symbols per second. This is unchanged from Wi-Fi 6. For peak data rate calculation we assume best case values from AP perspective: 320MHz channel allocation, 4096-QAM modulation, coding rate of 5/6, and MU-MIMO over 16 streams. At 320MHz, we have 3920 sub-carriers. This considers only the data sub-carriers of each RU and ignores the pilot sub-carriers. This gives us the following:

    $$Peak\ Rate = 12\ bits/symbol\ \cdot\ 5/6\\\cdot\ 73529\ symbols/sec\ \cdot\ 3920\ \cdot\ 16\ \\=\ 46Gbps$$

    In practice, implementations are often lower than this theoretical maximum due to cost, capability or form factor. Even if APs are designed for the maximum, clients have lower capability. MLO across different bands at different bandwidths is the way to increase peak rates at clients.

    An online calculator is available at RF Wireless World.

  • What technical proposals weren't approved for IEEE 802.11be?

    Erroneous packets are discarded by the receiver. With Hybrid ARQ (HARQ), such packets are not discarded. They're later combined with retransmissions of the packet to improve the chance of correct decoding. However, HARQ didn't make it into the final Wi-Fi 7 standard due to implementation challenges. HARQ requires higher compute and memory.

    Multiple APs can coordinate their operations in terms of scheduling, beamforming and MIMO. Called Multi-AP Coordination, this feature was dropped from Wi-Fi 7.

    In the initial proposals for Wi-Fi 8, there's mention of Multi-AP Coordination but there's no mention of HARQ.

  • What are some implementation challenges with IEEE 802.11be?
    Block diagram of a Wi-Fi 7 AP based on Broadcom chipset. Source: Broadcom 2022b.
    Block diagram of a Wi-Fi 7 AP based on Broadcom chipset. Source: Broadcom 2022b.

    For 4096-QAM, implementations must have high modulation/demodulation accuracy, high linearity in power amplifiers, and beamforming. Power must be evenly distributed across the entire 320MHz bandwidth.

    MLMR is a challenge. MediaTek's architecture has separate RF chips and a common baseband chip for U-MAC and L-MACs. Broadcom's architecture separates U-MAC and L-MAC into separate chips. Better power management is needed since an MLD needs to listen to multiple bands. Traffic predictions can help in dynamically enabling/disabling links. Scheduling algorithms are complex.

    For real-time applications, sub-millisecond latency at 99.999% reliability is needed. Current scheduling mechanisms in Wi-Fi 7 are not able to provide this.

    Given many MCS, channel bandwidths and their combinations via multi RUs and MLO, all these combinations will have to be tested. Wi-Fi 7 devices operating under various configurations need to be tested for backward compatibility with legacy deployments.

  • Who are the main vendors for IEEE 802.11be?

    The following are some of the vendors for IEEE 802.11be:

    • Chipsets: Broadcom, Intel, MaxLinear, MediaTek, Qualcomm
    • Modules: Fibocom, NXP (front-end ICs), Quectel, Qorvo (power modules and filters), Wallys
    • Devices: NetGear, Asus, TP-Link, RUCKUS Networks (CommScope), and many more
    • Test Equipment: Alethea, Anritsu (MT8862A), Keysight, National Instruments, Rohde & Schwarz, Spirent

    As on January 2024, there's no chipset supporting the peak rate of 46Gbps. Qualcomm's Networking Pro 1620 achieves 33Gbps.

Milestones

May
2018
Wi-Fi 7 standardization timeline. Source: Liu et al. 2023, fig. 1.
Wi-Fi 7 standardization timeline. Source: Liu et al. 2023, fig. 1.

Towards the goal of standardizing 802.11be EHT, the IEEE 802.11 Working Group (WG) approves the formation of a Topic Interest Group (TIG). This is followed with a Study Group (SG) in July 2018 and a Task Group (TG) in May 2019. These developments happen even when IEEE 802.11ax (Wi-Fi 6) is not fully standardized. Wi-Fi 6 is mostly standardized by Draft 6.0 (Dec 2019) and formally published in May 2021.

Feb
2022

At MWC 2022, Qualcomm announces FastConnect 7800, a Wi-Fi 7 and Bluetooth connectivity platform for devices. This offers peak data rate of 5.8Gbps and under 2ms latency. In May 2022, Qualcomm releases its Networking Pro series for APs. At the high end is Networking Pro 1620 that promises 33Gbps with quad-band operation over 16 streams. It can support 2000 clients. In December 2022, Qualcomm releases a more compact and cost-effective platform called Immersive Home Platform. This includes a capability called Qualcomm Multi-Link Mesh.

Apr
2022
Broadcom's initial chipset offering for Wi-Fi 7. Source: Counterpoint 2022a.
Broadcom's initial chipset offering for Wi-Fi 7. Source: Counterpoint 2022a.

Broadcom announces its first Wi-Fi 7 chipset family. This includes BCM67263 (only 6GHz), BCM6726, BCM43740, BCM43720 and BCM4398 (with Bluetooth 5). At the high end for enterprise APs is BCM43740 that promises 11.5Gbps PHY rate with tri-band operations over 4 streams. In June 2023, Broadcom releases its second generation chipsets BCM6765, BCM47722 and BCM4390 at lower price points.

Jun
2022

Chinese vendor H3C announces the world's first Wi-Fi 7 router. The triband router named H3C Magic BE18000 promises to deliver 18Gbps of peak data rate. It's powered by Qualcomm Networking Pro 1220 platform. Let's note that Wi-Fi 7 is not yet standardized. Neither is any product certification currently in place. In November 2022, TP-Link unveils its own series of Wi-Fi 7 Broadcom-based Archer and Qualcomm-based Deco devices.

Mar
2023

IEEE publishes Draft 2.0. This is followed with Draft 3.0 (Aug 2023) and Draft 4.0 (Dec 2023). By the end of 2023, IEEE 802.11be is mostly standardized. Formal approval and publication is expected in 2024.

Oct
2023

In the U.S., the FCC allows Very Low Power (VLP) operations in the unlicensed 6GHz band. In particular, this is for the U-NII-5 (5.925-6.425GHz) and U-NII-7 (6.525-6.875GHz) portions of the band, amounting to 850MHz of spectrum. Operations can be indoor or outdoor without requiring any frequency coordination system. Back in April 2020, FCC had announced that 6GHz band could be used for expanded unlicensed operations.

Nov
2023

Dell'Oro Group observes that only 10% of WLAN shipments in Q3 2023 were of Wi-Fi 6E. It's also been commented that many customers turn off OFDMA since it doesn't work very well. It's expected that Wi-Fi 7 will face similar challenges. In any case, Wi-Fi 7 is expected to take off in 2024.

Dec
2023

At WRC-23, 6.425-7.125GHz is set aside for licensed 5G operations. However, FCC in the U.S. had earlier allowed unlicensed operations in this spectrum. This means that the 6GHz band is not going to be globally available for Wi-Fi 7. This is despite Wi-Fi Alliance arguing its case for 6GHz Wi-Fi allocation back in 2022.

Jan
2024
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 7™ logo. Source: Wi-Fi Alliance 2024.
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 7™ logo. Source: Wi-Fi Alliance 2024.

Wi-Fi Alliance announces Wi-Fi CERITIFIED 7™. The certification programme is meant to enable greater interoperability among Wi-Fi devices. The certification test bed is formed of Broadcom, CommScope RUCKUS Networks, Intel, MaxLinear, MediaTek, and Qualcomm. The same companies are among those to have the first certified products. Qualcomm alone has announced 450+ designs.

Feb
2024

At MWC 2024, Qualcomm announces its AI-optimized Fast Connect 7900 chipset. By optimizing MLO for each device, AI will improve on signal quality and overall performance. The chipset integrates Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Ultra-Wideband (UWB). It enables digital key, object finding, and indoor navigation.

Feb
2024

FCC approves seven Automated Frequency Coordination (AFC) systems for operations in the 6GHz band. Approval process started in September 2021. With this approval, APs and fixed client devices can use the U-NII-5 and U-NII-7 portions of the band with Standard Power. AFC ensures that these transmissions don't interfere with incumbent systems such as microwave receivers and radio astronomy observatories. Some of the approved systems are built using OpenAFC, an initiative started in August 2021. In U-NII-6 (100MHz) and U-NII-8 (250MHz), FCC permits low-power indoor APs.

References

  1. Adame, T., M. Carrascosa-Zamacois, and B. Bellalta. 2021. "Time-Sensitive Networking in IEEE 802.11be: On the Way to Low-Latency WiFi 7." Sensors, vol. 21, no. 15, article no. 4954, July 21. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  2. Akhmetov, D., R. Arefi, H. Yaghoobi, C. Cordeiro and D. Cavalcanti. 2022. "6 GHz Spectrum Needs for Wi-Fi 7." IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 5-7, March. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  3. Alethea. 2023. "Throughput in Wi-Fi 7: 4096 QAM." Blog, Alethea, August 9. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  4. Anritsu. 2024. "Wi-Fi 7 Technology Trends." Anritsu. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  5. Arista. 2023. "Wi-Fi 7: A Leap Towards Time-Sensitive Networking." White paper, Arista, October. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  6. Broadcom. 2022a. "Broadcom Announces Availability of World’s First Wi-Fi 7 Ecosystem Solutions." Press release, Broadcom, April 12. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  7. Broadcom. 2022b. "BCM67262 & BCM6726: Next Generation of Wi-Fi 7 (802.11be) Access Point Devices." Product brief, Broadcom, April 6. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  8. Cordeiro, C. 2022. "Wi-Fi Unleashed: Wi-Fi 7, 6 GHz, and Beyond." Slides, Intel, June. Accessed 2024-05-21.
  9. Counterpoint. 2022a. "Broadcom Looks to Build on Wi-Fi 6/6E Momentum with End-to-End Wi-Fi 7 Solutions." Counterpoint, April 28. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  10. Counterpoint. 2022b. "TP-Link Unveils World’s First Wi-Fi 7 Devices." Counterpoint, November 16. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  11. Danel, E. 2023. "Level up your mesh Wi-Fi: A deep dive into Qualcomm Multi-Link Mesh [+video]." OnQ Blog, Qualcomm, March 16. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  12. Dano, M. 2023. "6GHz, satellites and 6G addressed at WRC-23." LightReading, December 16. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  13. Davidson, A. 2023. "Wi-Fi 7: Unlocking next-level performance in gaming, XR, enterprise applications, and more." OnQ Blog, Qualcomm, January 27. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  14. Ekahau. 2024. "Wi-Fi 7: What’s New and How It Will Impact Your Network." Blog, Ekahau, February 19. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  15. English, J. 2023. "Wi-Fi 7 development grows but adoption interest lags." TechTarget, December 15. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  16. FCC. 2023. "FCC permits very low power device operations in 6 GHz band." Press release, FCC, October 19. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  17. FCC. 2024. "OET announces approval of seven 6 GHz band automated frequency coordination systems for commercial operation and seeks comment on C3 Spectra’s proposed AFC system." Public notice, DA 24-166, FCC, February 23. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  18. Fibocom. 2023. "Fibocom Debuts the Wi-Fi 7 Module WN170-GL at Broadband World Forum 2023." Press release, Fibocom, October 26. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  19. Galati-Giordano, L., G. Geraci, M. Carrascosa, and B. Bellalta. 2023. "What Will Wi-Fi 8 Be? A Primer on IEEE 802.11bn Ultra High Reliability." v3, arXiv, November 21. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  20. Ganesh T S. 2023. "Broadcom Updates Wi-Fi 7 Portfolio with Lower Cost Second Generation Silicon." AnandTech, June 20. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  21. Ganesh T S. 2024. "Wi-Fi Alliance Introduces Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 7: 802.11be Prepares for Draft Standard Exit." AnandTech, January 23. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  22. Halfhill, T. R. 2023. "WI-FI 7 AP Chips Coming Next Year." TechInsights. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  23. Hetting, C. 2022a. "Qualcomm’s new Wi-Fi 7 chipset release sends AP capacity into orbit at 33 Gbps." Blog, Wi-Fi Now, May 4. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  24. Hetting, C. 2022b. "World’s first Wi-Fi 7 router released by H3C & powered by Qualcomm." Blog, Wi-Fi Now, June 17. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  25. Hetting, C. 2022c. "TP-Link launches seven consumer-grade Wi-Fi 7 APs, two Wi-Fi 7 routers for ISPs, and two for enterprise." Blog, Wi-Fi Now, November 15. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  26. Hetting, C. 2024. "FCC approves seven AFC service providers opening door to standard power 6 GHz Wi-Fi across the US." Blog, Wi-Fi Now, February 24. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  27. Howard. 2023. "Wi-Fi 6 vs Wi-Fi 6E vs Wi-Fi 7: How to Choose?" FS, November 10. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  28. IEEE. 2024a. "Official IEEE 802.11 Working Group Project Timelines - 2024-05-14." IEEE, May 14. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  29. Intel. 2023. "Intel® Wi-Fi 7 Products." Intel, October 16. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  30. Intel. 2024. "What Is Wi-Fi 7?" Intel. February 27. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  31. Jeknić, A. and E. Kočan. 2023. "Development Steps that Brought to Wi-Fi 7." ETF Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 65-79. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  32. Keysight. 2024. "Keysight Launches Wireless Test Platform for Wi-Fi 7." Press release, Keysight, February 13. Accessed 2024-05-27.
  33. Koziol, M. 2023. "Wi-Fi 7 Signals the Industry’s New Priority: Stability." IEEE Spectrum, December 29. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  34. Liu, X., Y. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Lin, X. Yang, and M. Gan. 2023. "IEEE 802.11be Wi-Fi 7: Feature Summary and Performance Evaluation." v1, arXiv, September 27. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  35. MathWorks. 2024. "802.11be Waveform Generation." Documentation, 802.11be (Wi-Fi 7), MathWorks, R2024a. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  36. MaxLinear. 2022. "MaxLinear Boosts its Gateway & Access Platform with Wi-Fi 7 Family of SoCs." Press release, MaxLinear, October 18. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  37. Mouser. 2023. "Qorvo QPF4659 6GHz Wi-Fi® 7 High-Power Front End Modules." December 1. Updated 2024-05-10. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  38. NXP. 2024. "WLAN7201CC: 5 GHz-7 GHz Wi-Fi® 6E, Wi-Fi 7 Front-End IC." NXP. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  39. Nagarajan, V. 2022. "The future of wireless is now with Wi-Fi 7." Blog, Broadcom, April 11. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  40. National Instruments. 2023. "Wi-Fi 7: Increased Speed and Data Rates Mean More Test Challenges." National Instruments. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  41. Palayur, S., I.V. Beitia, and S. Schelstraete. 2024. "Quality of Service (QoS) Mechanisms in Wi-Fi." MaxLinear, May 24. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  42. Qadri, Y.A., Zulqarnain, A. Nauman, A. Musaddiq, E. Garcia-Villegas, and S.W. Kim. 2022. "Preparing Wi-Fi 7 for Healthcare Internet-of-Things." Sensors, vol. 22, no. 16, article no. 6209, August 18. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  43. Qualcomm. 2022a. "MWC 2022: Qualcomm FastConnect 7800 makes Wi-Fi 7 and next-gen Bluetooth audio a reality." OnQ Blog, Qualcomm, February 28. Accessed 2024-05-18.
  44. Qualcomm. 2022b. "Qualcomm Revolutionizes Home Networking with Wi-Fi 7 Immersive Home Platforms." Press release, Qualcomm, December 13. Accessed 2024-05-18.
  45. Qualcomm. 2024a. "Qualcomm® Wi-Fi 7: Quick Reference Guide." Qualcomm, January 11. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  46. Qualcomm. 2024b. "Networking Pro 1620 Platform." Qualcomm. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  47. Quectel. 2024. "Quectel unveils Wi-Fi 7 modules for next-generation connectivity." Press release, Quectel, January 9. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  48. RF Wireless World. 2024. "WiFi 7 Chip Vendors | Wi-Fi 7 SoC Manufacturers." RF Wireless World. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  49. Ruijie Networks. 2023. "Wi-Fi 7 vs. Wi-Fi 6: Here's What You Need to Know (Part 1)." Ruijie Networks, July 27. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  50. Stanley, D. 2022. "IEEE 802.11 WLAN Working Group Liaison Communication." IEEE 802.11 Working Group (WG), December 20. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  51. ViewPlay. 2022. "Uncompressed Video Vs Compressed Video For HDMI Extender." ViewPlay, September 5. Updated 2022-10-08. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  52. Wallace, B. 2024. "Wi-Fi 7 Gets Boost from Qualcomm AI-Optimized Chipset." Network Computing, Informa PLC, March 1. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  53. Wallys. 2024. "Products: Network Card." Wallys Communications. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  54. Wi-Fi Alliance. 2022. "6 GHz Wi-Fi®: Connecting to the future." White paper, Wi-Fi Alliance, October. Accessed 2024-05-19.
  55. Wi-Fi Alliance. 2024. "Wi-Fi Alliance® introduces Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 7™." Press release, Wi-Fi Alliance, January 8. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  56. Wikipedia. 2024. "Resource Unit." Wikipedia, January 6. Accessed 2024-05-19.

Further Reading

  1. Cordeiro, C. 2022. "Wi-Fi Unleashed: Wi-Fi 7, 6 GHz, and Beyond." Slides, Intel, June. Accessed 2024-05-21.
  2. Liu, X., Y. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Lin, X. Yang, and M. Gan. 2023. "IEEE 802.11be Wi-Fi 7: Feature Summary and Performance Evaluation." v1, arXiv, September 27. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  3. Arista. 2023. "Wi-Fi 7: A Leap Towards Time-Sensitive Networking." White paper, Arista, October. Accessed 2024-05-17.
  4. MediaTek. 2022a. "Wi-Fi 7: Multi-Link Operation (MLO)." White paper, MediaTek, June 13. Accessed 2024-05-18.
  5. Cavalcanti, D. and G. Venkatesan. 2020. "802.1 TSN over 802.11 with updates from developments in 802.11be." Slides, Intel, IEEE 802.1 Plenary, November. Accessed 2024-05-20.
  6. Deng, C., X. Fang, X. Han, X. Wang, R. He, Y. Long, and Y. Guo. 2020. "IEEE 802.11be Wi-Fi 7: New Challenges and Opportunities." IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 2136-2166, Fourthquarter, doi: 10.1109/COMST.2020.3012715. Accessed 2024-05-17. Accessed 2024-05-17.

Article Stats

Author-wise Stats for Article Edits

Author
No. of Edits
No. of Chats
DevCoins
6
0
1702
2396
Words
1
Likes
208
Hits

Cite As

Devopedia. 2024. "IEEE 802.11be." Version 6, May 27. Accessed 2024-05-27. https://devopedia.org/ieee-802-11be
Contributed by
1 author


Last updated on
2024-05-27 04:16:21